Causes of the 1905 russian revolution essay

However, the Tsar effectively nullified his promises of Democracy with Article 87 of the Fundamental State Laws, and then subsequently dismissed the first two Dumas when they proved uncooperative. These unfulfilled hopes of democracy fuelled revolutionary ideas and violence targeted at the Tsarist regime. It appears as though Tsar Nicholas II never really considered Russia a constitutional state and invariably held on to his strong inclination towards an Autocratic Russia. Beside the economic and social problems plaguing the country, the Russian Empire was still recovering from a humiliating defeat at the Russo-Japanese War of One of Nicholas's reasons for going to war in was his desire to restore the prestige that Russia had lost during that war.

Nicholas also wanted to galvanize the diverse people in his empire under a single banner by directing military force at a common enemy, namely Germany and the Central Powers. He believed by doing so he could also distract the people from the ongoing issues of poverty, inequality, and poor working conditions that were sources of discontent.

Instead of restoring Russia's political and military standing, World War I would lead to horrifying military casualties on the Russian side and undermined it further. From the beginning the troops were not adequately supplied with weapons, or were led by incompetent generals and officers.

Logistics were also a problem, since Russia's poorly maintained roads and railroads inhibited communication and distribution of supplies. Almost everywhere Russian forces were matched against German forces who had a superior advantage in weaponry, military talent, and logistics. World War I Russia's recent history was a litany of military failures.

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Most of Russia's fleet was sunk by the Japanese in that war. While the Russian army enjoyed some initial successes against Austria-Hungary in , Russia's deficiencies — particularly regarding the equipment of its soldiers and the lack of advanced technology aeroplanes, telephones, poison gas became increasingly evident. Russia's first major battle of the war was a disaster.


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In the Battle of Tannenberg , over , Russian troops were killed, wounded, or captured, while Germany suffered only 20, casualties. Whatever nationalistic or patriotic support the Russian government had gained in the initial time frame leading up to the war had been lost. In , things took a critical turn for the worse when Germany shifted its focus of attack to the Eastern front.

The superior German army - better led, better trained, better supplied - was terrifyingly effective against the ill-equipped Russian forces.

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By the end of October , Russia had lost between 1. These were staggering losses. Mutinies began to occur, and in reports of fraternizing with the enemy started to circulate. Soldiers went hungry and lacked shoes, munitions, and even weapons.

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Sometimes entire regiments would be sent to the front without guns, only hoping that before they made contact with the enemy, they would find weapons from soldiers that had been killed in earlier waves. Heavy artillery was also in such short supply in many engagements, that for every shells fired by the Russian forces the Germans would respond with up to 3, Rampant discontent lowered morale, only to be further undermined by a series of military defeats. In the autumn of , Nicholas had taken direct command of the army, personally overseeing Russia's main theatre of war and leaving his ambitious though incapable wife Alexandra in charge of the government.

Reports of corruption and incompetence in the Imperial government began to emerge, and the growing influence of Grigori Rasputin in the Imperial family was widely resented. Nicholas was blamed for all these crises, and what little support he had left began to crumble. As this discontent grew, the State Duma issued a warning to Nicholas in November stating that disaster would overtake the country unless a constitutional form of government was put in place. In typical fashion, Nicholas ignored them. As a result, Russia's Tsarist regime collapsed a few months later during the February Revolution of A year later, the Tsar and his family were executed.


  • Russian Revolution Essay | Nicholas Ii Of Russia | Soviet Union.
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  • Ultimately, Nicholas's inept handling of his country and the War destroyed the Tsarist regime and would ultimately cost him both his rule and his life. February Revolution. This reference article is mainly selected from the English Wikipedia with only minor checks and changes see www. See also our Disclaimer. Russian Federation.

    Beginning of split between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks. Russian Revolution of January - Bloody Sunday in St. Prison, courts, and police stations attacked and looted by angry crowds. Okhranka buildings set on fire. Garrison joins revolutionaries. Petrograd Soviet formed. Return of Lenin to Russia.

    He publishes his April Theses. The Finns and Poles demanded their right to national independence. In October , a general strike took place in Moscow and quickly spread to other cities. All manner of people took to the streets demanding change — students, factory workers, revolutionaries, doctors and teachers. This example of working class unity and strength quickly spread to other industrial cities.

    Nicholas had two choices. He could use force to put down the rebellions but he had no guarantee that this would be successful as he could not fully trust the military or he could make a conciliatory offer. He did the latter by issuing the October Manifesto on October 30th. Nicholas used loyal troops to put down the St Petersburg Soviet and to crush those on strike in Moscow. Loyal troops were also sent into the countryside to restore law and order. Petersburg, our wives, our children and our parents, helpless and aged women and men, have come to You our ruler, in search of justice and protection.

    Essay on Assess The Reasons For The Revolution In | Major Tests

    We are beggars, we are oppressed and overburdened with work, we are insulted, we are not looked on as human beings but as slaves. The moment has come for us when death would be better than the prolongation of our intolerable sufferings. We are seeking here our last salvation.

    Do not refuse to help Your people. Destroy the wall between Yourself and Your people.